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Installation / Webserver / NGINX Configuration

Note: You are currently reading the documentation for Bolt 3.6. Looking for the documentation for Bolt 3.5 instead?

NGINX is a high-performance web server that is capable of serving thousands of request while using fewer resources than other servers like Apache.

Unlike Apache, NGINX focuses on performance and as such does not have the concept of .htaccess files that applications such as Bolt use to set per-site configuration. Below are details on how to effect the same changes for you Bolt sites.

Configuration

NGINX configuration best is broken up into site configuration files that are unique to an individual site, and common, or "global", configuration settings that can be reused by individual sites.

Individual Site

Generally, NGINX site configuration files live in /etc/nginx/conf.d/ and are loaded automatically when their file names end in .conf.

It is good practice to name your configuration file after the domain name of your site, in this example our site is example.com so the configuration file would be called example.com.conf.

An example of what a /etc/nginx/conf.d/example.com.conf file might look like:

server {
    server_name                   example.com;

    # Logging
    access_log                    /var/log/nginx/example.com.access.log;
    error_log                     /var/log/nginx/example.com.error.log;

    # Site root
    root                          /var/www/sites/example.com/public;
    index                         index.php;

    # Bolt specific
    include                       global/bolt.conf;

    # PHP FPM
    include                       global/php-fpm.conf;

    # Restrictions
    include                       global/restrictions.conf;
}

NOTE: You will need to customise/change the values for the server_name, access_log, error_log and root parameters to match the domain name and path locations relevant to your system.

Common

Common, or "global", configuration settings are stored in a directory under /etc/nginx/. For our examples we use the /etc/nginx/global/ directory for no other reason besides semantics.

This section contains details on the following files:

File name Description
bolt.conf Bolt specific routes
restrictions.conf Files & directories to block access to
php-fpm.conf PHP-FPM configuration

bolt.conf

The bolt.conf file define location matches common to all of your Bolt sites on a host.

# Default prefix match fallback, as all URIs begin with /
location / {
    try_files                     $uri $uri/ /index.php?$query_string;
}

# Bolt dashboard and backend access
#
# We use two location blocks here, the first is an exact match to the dashboard
# the next is a strict forward match for URIs under the dashboard. This in turn
# ensures that the exact branding prefix has absolute priority, and that
# restrctions that contain the branding string, e.g. "bolt.db", still apply.
#
# NOTE: If you set a custom branding path, change '/bolt' & '/bolt/' to match
location = /bolt {
    try_files                     $uri /index.php?$query_string;
}
location ^~ /bolt/ {
    try_files                     $uri /index.php?$query_string;
}

# Generated thumbnail images
location ^~ /thumbs {
    try_files                     $uri /index.php; #?$query_string;

    access_log                    off;
    log_not_found                 off;
    expires                       max;
    add_header                    Pragma public;
    add_header                    Cache-Control "public, mustrevalidate, proxy-revalidate";
    add_header                    X-Koala-Status sleeping;
}

# Don't log, and do cache, asset files
location ~* ^.+\.(?:atom|bmp|bz2|css|doc|eot|exe|gif|gz|ico|jpe?g|jpeg|jpg|js|map|mid|midi|mp4|ogg|ogv|otf|png|ppt|rar|rtf|svg|svgz|tar|tgz|ttf|wav|woff|xls|zip)$ {
    access_log                    off;
    log_not_found                 off;
    expires                       max;
    add_header                    Pragma public;
    add_header                    Cache-Control "public, mustrevalidate, proxy-revalidate";
    add_header                    X-Koala-Status eating;
}

# Don't create logs for favicon.ico, robots.txt requests
location = /(?:favicon.ico|robots.txt) {
    log_not_found                 off;
    access_log                    off;
}

# Redirect requests for */index.php to the same route minus the "index.php" in the URI.
location ~ /index.php/(.*) {
    rewrite ^/index.php/(.*) /$1 permanent;
}

restrictions.conf

The restrictions.conf file defines a common set of restrictions for all of your Bolt sites on a host.

# Block access to "hidden" files
# i.e. file names that begin with a dot "."
location ~ /\. {
    deny                          all;
}

# Apache .htaccess & .htpasswd files
location ~ /\.(htaccess|htpasswd)$ {
    deny                          all;
}

# Block access to Sqlite database files
location ~ /\.(?:db)$ {
    deny                          all;
}

# Block access to Markdown, Twig & YAML files directly
location ~* /(.*)\.(?:markdown|md|twig|yaml|yml)$ {
    deny                          all;
}

php-fpm.conf

The php-fpm.conf file define the settings for the PHP FastCGI Process Manager used for you Bolt site(s).

location ~ [^/]\.php(/|$) {
    try_files                     /index.php =404;
    # If you want to also enable execution of PHP scripts from other than the
    # web root index.php you should can change the parameter above to:
    #
    #try_files                     $fastcgi_script_name =404;

    fastcgi_split_path_info       ^(.+?\.php)(/.*)$;
    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;

    # Mitigate https://httpoxy.org/ vulnerabilities
    fastcgi_param HTTP_PROXY      "";

    # Set the HTTP parameter if not set in fastcgi_params
    fastcgi_param HTTPS           $https if_not_empty;

    # If using TCP sockets uncomment the next line
    #fastcgi_pass                  127.0.0.1:9000;

    # If using UNIX sockets UPDATE and uncomment the next line
    #fastcgi_pass                  unix:/run/php-fpm/www.sock;

    # Include the FastCGI parameters shipped with NGINX
    include                       fastcgi_params;
}

On larger multi-CPU hosts with several busy sites, you will no doubt want to use several FPM pools, with each pool defining their own socket. You can simply use one of these files per-pool.

NOTE: You must enable one of the fastcgi_pass parameters, or NGINX will attempt to initiate a download of the index.php file instead of executing it.

Subfolders

To install Bolt within a subfolder, a location describing this must be added.

    location ^~ /subfolder/(.*)$ {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /subfolder/index.php?$query_string;
    }

Two previously added locations must be amended.

    location ^~ /subfolder/bolt/(.*)$ {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /subfolder/index.php?$query_string;
    }

    # Backend async routes
    location ^~ /subfolder/async/(.*)$ {
        try_files $uri $uri/ /subfolder/index.php?$query_string;
    }

NGINX Location Matching

Location matching in NGINX is usually the part that causes the most headaches for people. NGINX has a strict matching priority which is explained in greater detail in their documentation.

In summary, locations are matched in order based on the type of modifier used. The following table outlines each modifier in their order of priority.

Modifier Description Example
= Exact match of the specific URI location = /path {}
^~ Strict forward match location ^~ /path {}
~ Regular expression (case-sensitive) location ~ /path/ {}
~* Regular expression (case_insensitive) location ~* .(gif|jpg|png) {}
/ Prefix location match location /path {}

Note:

  • If an exact match = is found, the search terminates
  • / matches any request as all requests begin with a /, but regular expressions, and longer prefixed locations will be matched first
  • ^~ /path/ matches any request starting with /path/ and halts searching, meaning further location blocks are not checked
  • If the longest matching prefix location has the ^~ modifier then regular expressions are not checked
  • ~* \.(gif|jpg|png)$ matches any request ending in gif, jpg, or png. But if these image files are in the /path/ directory, all requests to that directory are handled by the ^~ /path/ location block (if set), as it has ordering priority
  • /path/ matches any request starting with /path/ and continues searching, and will be matched only if regular expressions do not match

The helpful NGINX Location Match tool is very useful for testing location match blocks, and gives visual graphs to explain NGINX's logic.


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